Artificial Eye - can you think blind people can also see this world?
Artificial eye

ARTIFICIAL EYE – CAN YOU THINK BLIND PEOPLE CAN ALSO SEE THIS WORLD?

Artificial eye is a technique that replaces an absent natural eye following an enucleation, evisceration & orbital exenteration. The prosthesis fits under the eyelids.

Over millions of people are affected by visual anomalities, due to this challenge that this project came into being. The aim is to restore vision to the blind. Today, various high tech resources are working together to realize a device for the electrical stimulation of the visual system.

HOW EYES WORK?

The light coming from an object enters the eye through cornea and pupil. Then the light rays are converged to form a real, inverted and diminished image on the retina. After that the light sensitive cells of the retina get activated with the incidence of light & generate electrical signals. Electric signals are then sent to the brain by the optic nerves. Then the electrical signals are interpreted in such a way that we see an image which of the same size as the object.

Steps to replace a damaged or diseased eye:

  • First the natural eye is removed by ophthalmologist or eye surgeon. Then the enucleation removes the eyeball by severing the muscles, which are connected to the sclera (white of eyeball). The surgeon then cuts the optic nerve and removes the eye from the socket. An implant is placed into the socket which restore the lost volume and give the artificial eye some movement and then the wound is closed.
  • The contents of the eyeball are removed by the process of evisceration. In this operation, an incision is made by surgeon around the iris and then removes the contents of the eyeball. A ball made of some inert material such as plastic, glass, or silicon is then placed inside the eyeball and then the wound is closed.

The surgeon will place a conformer into the socket at the conclusion of surgery. The conformer prevents socket shrinking and retains adequate pockets for the prosthesis. It takes the patient from four to six weeks to heal. The artificial eye is then fitted by a professional ocularist.

                                                                      

                                                    Fig-a                                                                                             Fig-b

Fig-a For a bioocular implant, the surgeon makes an incision around the iris and then removes the contents of the eyeball. A ball made of some inert material such as plastic, glass, or silicone is then placed inside the eyeball and the wound is closed.

Fig-b For a conventional implant, the surgeon removes the eyeball by severing the muscles, which are connected to the sclera (white of eyeball). The surgeon then cuts the optic nerve and removes the eye from the socket.

 

THE EYE

Eye is the main part in our visual system. Our ability to see is the result of a process very similar to that of a camera. A camera needs a lens and a film for image production.

When a bionic eye implant is received by a patient, they will not suddenly experience the same level of vision as a person with two healthy eyes. Initially, the vision is very basic. Patient may be able to distinguish between darkness and light, and can see flickering of light and movement in a pixelated form with akin to black and white low-resolution images. The ‘image’ patient will see will consist of a series of dozens to hundreds of dots of light, configured in a way which will help them navigate the world around them. This is due to the current limitations of the technology.

The successful development of a bionic eye has the ability to change lives in a very real way. Restoring with impaired vision may allow patient to become more mobile and independent and return to them the quality of life they lost when their vision disappeared. After years of darkness imagine a person being able to once again read and can see which brings brightness and smile for them. It requires a lot of time and a lot of money to bring it to fruition due to scientific breakthroughs. The bionic ear is now a reality that has helped many people over the world and let’s hopes that the bionic eye is also not too far behind. 

By Charu Rohilla (Asst. Prof. CSE)

Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad

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